Knowledgebase

Overview


Thank you for checking out the Adversa Labs Knowledgebase. This knowledgebase is referenced by our security assessment results and contains all the information necessary to further triage and resolve identified vulnerabilities. The primary taxonomy recognized is the OWASP Top Ten 2017. Vulnerabilities that we identify that do not easily fit into the OWASP Top Ten 2017 are captured within the Security Taxonomy Extension.

Unlicensed instances of Adversa SDK are limited to identifying the following vulnerabilities: SQL Injection, Cross-Site Scripting (XSS) and XML External Entities (XXE). Licensed instances of Adversa SDK will be given access to the full suite of security tests, covering all of the vulnerabilities outlined in the knowledgebase. Click here to purchase one or more licenses.

We are actively updating our knowledgebase and corresponding security tests. At times, you may need further assistance if something is either not covered, or clear in the knowledgebase. In these instances, you can reach out to us at support@adversalabs.com

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Customer Support, Adversa Labs LLC.

OWASP Top Ten 2017

The OWASP Top 10 is a powerful awareness document for web application security. It represents a broad consensus about the most critical security risks to web applications. Adopting the OWASP Top 10 is perhaps the most effective first step towards changing the application development culture within your organization into one that produces secure code.

Click here for more information on the OWASP Top Ten.

  • A1: Injection

    Injection flaws, such as SQL, NoSQL, OS, and LDAP injection, occur when untrusted data is sent to an interpreter as part of a command or query. The attacker’s hostile data can trick the interpreter into executing unintended commands or accessing data without proper authorization. We identify the following issues within this category:

    • Eval Injection
      application dynamically constructs and evaluates script code using attacker controlled data
    • Filter Injection
      application dynamically constructs and utilizes a filter expression using attacker controlled data
    • FTP Injection
      application creates and submits FTP commands using unvalidated attacker controlled data
    • HTTP Header Injection
      application dynamically constructs and produces a http header using attacker controlled data
    • HTTP Parameter Pollution
      application dynamically constructs and submits a remote uri using attacker controlled data
    • JSON Pointer Injection
      application dynamically constructs and evaluates json pointer expressions using attacker controlled data
    • LDAP Injection
      application dynamically constructs and evaluates ldap code using attacker controlled data
    • NoSQL Injection
      application dynamically constructs and evaluates nosql code using attacker controlled data
    • OS Injection
      application dynamically constructs and evaluates os code using attacker controlled data
    • Remote File Inclusion
      application remotely downloads and executes a script controlled by the attacker
    • Server-Side Template Injection
      application dynamically constructs and evaluates template code using attacker controlled data
    • SMTP Injection
      application creates and submits SMTP messages using unvalidated attacker controlled data
    • SQL Injection
      application dynamically constructs and evaluates sql code using attacker controlled data
    • XPath Injection
      application dynamically constructs and evaluates xpath code using attacker controlled data
    • XQuery Injection
      application dynamically constructs and evaluates xquery code using attacker controlled data
  • A2: Broken Authentication

    Application functions related to authentication and session management are often implemented incorrectly, allowing attackers to compromise passwords, keys, or session tokens, or to exploit other implementation flaws to assume other users’ identities temporarily or permanently.

    • Insecure Connection
      application establishes a network connection whose underlying protocol is insecure
    • Insufficient Work Factor
      application makes use of an insufficient work factor for a cryptographic operation
    • Non-Expiring Token
      application generates a cryptographic token with an insufficient expiration date
    • Session Fixation
      application accepts a session identifier that was either previously exposed or specified by the client
    • Token Replay
      application generates a cryptographic token that can be replayed by an attacker
    • Weak Credential
      application permits and consumes a user or service account whose credentials are overly weak
  • A3: Sensitive Data Exposure

    Many web applications and APIs do not properly protect sensitive data, such as financial, healthcare, and PII. Attackers may steal or modify such weakly protected data to conduct credit card fraud, identity theft, or other crimes. Sensitive data may be compromised without extra protection, such as encryption at rest or in transit, and requires special precautions when exchanged with the browser.

    • Certificate Validation Disabled
      application explicitly disables tls certificate validation
    • Credential Disclosure
      application exposes clear-text credentials over an insecure channel
    • Credit Card Disclosure
      application exposes clear-text credit card numbers over an insecure channel
    • Hard-Coded Credential
      application consumes a credential that is hard-coded in the source code
    • Insecure Cipher
      application makes use of a cipher algorithm known to be cryptographically insecure
    • Insecure Cipher Mode
      application makes use of a cipher mode known to be cryptographically insecure
    • Insecure Cipher Padding
      application makes use of a cipher padding known to be cryptographically insecure
    • Insecure Digest
      application makes use of a digest algorithm known to produce collisions
    • Insecure Mac
      application makes use of a (h)mac algorithm known to be cryptographically insecure
    • Insecure PRNG
      application makes use of an insecure prng or makes insecure use of an intently secure prng
    • Key Disclosure
      application exposes clear-text cryptographic keys over an insecure channel
    • Tax Identification Disclosure
      application exposes clear-text tax identification numbers over an insecure channel
    • Token Disclosure
      application exposes clear-text cryptographic tokens over an insecure channel
    • Weak Key
      application permits and consumes an insufficiently random cryptographic key
    • Weak Salt
      application permits and consumes an insufficiently random cryptographic salt
  • A4: XML External Entities (XXE)

    Many older or poorly configured XML processors evaluate external entity references within XML documents. External entities can be used to disclose internal files using the file URI handler, internal file shares, internal port scanning, remote code execution, and denial of service attacks.

  • A5: Broken Access Control

    Restrictions on what authenticated users are allowed to do are often not properly enforced. Attackers can exploit these flaws to access unauthorized functionality and/or data, such as access other users' accounts, view sensitive files, modify other users’ data, change access rights, etc.

    • Directory Traversal
      application dynamically constructs a file path using attacker controlled data
    • Permission Manipulation
      application performs authorization using permission(s) controlled by the attacker
    • Privilege Escalation
      application allows an attacker to invoke and or access privileged functionality and or data
  • A6: Security Misconfiguration

    Security misconfiguration is the most commonly seen issue. This is commonly a result of insecure default configurations, incomplete or ad hoc configurations, open cloud storage, misconfigured HTTP headers, and verbose error messages containing sensitive information. Not only must all operating systems, frameworks, libraries, and applications be securely configured, but they must be patched and upgraded in a timely fashion.

  • A7: Cross-Site Scripting (XSS)

    XSS flaws occur whenever an application includes untrusted data in a new web page without proper validation or escaping, or updates an existing web page with user-supplied data using a browser API that can create HTML or JavaScript. XSS allows attackers to execute scripts in the victim’s browser which can hijack user sessions, deface web sites, or redirect the user to malicious sites.

  • A8: Insecure Deserialization

    Insecure deserialization often leads to remote code execution. Even if deserialization flaws do not result in remote code execution, they can be used to perform attacks, including replay attacks, injection attacks, and privilege escalation attacks.

  • A9: Using Components with Known Vulnerabilities

    Components, such as libraries, frameworks, and other application modules, run with the same privileges as the application. If a vulnerable component is exploited, such an attack can facilitate serious data loss or server takeover. Applications and APIs using components with known vulnerabilities may undermine application defenses and enable various attacks and impacts. Free and Open Source Software (FOSS) solutions to detect vulnerable 3rd party components are readily available. We recommend the use of OWASP Dependency Check.

  • A10: Insufficient Logging & Monitoring

    Insufficient logging and monitoring, coupled with missing or ineffective integration with incident response, allows attackers to further attack systems, maintain persistence, pivot to more systems, and tamper, extract, or destroy data. Most breach studies show time to detect a breach is over 200 days, typically detected by external parties rather than internal processes or monitoring.

Security Taxonomy Extension

The Security Taxonomy Extension is intended to serve as a home for vulnerability classes detected using Adversa Labs SDK Tools but that do not easily fit into one of the aforementioned taxonomies.

  • Denial of Service

    Denial of Service (DoS) occurs when an attacker is able to force an application into a state such that it cannot meet its uptime guarantees. Attackers that are able to exploit weaknesses in the way applications are developed can trigger DoS conditions.

    • Read Line DoS
      application consumes attacker controlled data using an insecure readline implementation
    • Regular Expression DoS
      application constructs a regular expression subject to denial of service attacks
  • Hyper Text Transfer Protocol

    Hyper Text Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is most commonly used when building web applications, REST API or microservices. There are a variety of ways in which an application can introduce a security vulnerability when using HTTP. Such vulnerabilities are often centered around how the HTTP connection is established and the HTTP request and response headers themselves.